Aerodynamic drag: the force exerted on an object in
motion relative to the air it is moving through.
Caliper brakes: a brake consisting of two brake blocks
which are drawn towards each other through a central pivot
and which grip the rim of the wheel.
Chainring: a large toothed ring (part of the chainset)
that drives the chain via the pedals and cranks.
Chainset: the setup comprising the chainwheels, chainring,
chain and rear sprocket.
Cogwheel: a less commonly used term for a sprocket.
Cranks: arms which drive the chainwheels. Cranks are bolted
to the crankshaft.
Crankshaft: axle to which the cranks are attached.
Derailleur: mechanism which moves the chain from one chainring
or sprocket to another.
Fatigue life: time taken to weaken a material subjected
Finite elemental modelling (FEM): data used to model a
particular property using computer software, for example,
analysing load throughout the monocoque structure.
Flush mounted instrumentation: instrumentation is positioned
evenly or level with the surface to avoid aerodynamic drag.
Fibre reinforced plastics. Thermosetting plastic composite
usually combining a resin with a fibre reinforcement such
as glass filament or carbon fibre.
Gear: mechanism on a bike that changes its rate of motion;
low gears make it harder to pedal, while high gears make it
Modal analysis: a tool for non-destructive inspection
and quality control.
Monocoque: a hollow shell frame with no additional core
(mono: one; coque: shell)
Optimisation: process of enhancing or capitalising on
the best features or qualities.
Spokes: arms inside a wheel rim that link the hub to the
Sprocket: rear cog, normally a smaller toothed ring, which
fits onto the rear wheel; also called a cog or cogwheel.
Tooling: the equipment for a particular job.
Track bike: bike with a 'fixed' single-speed gear and
Validated: confirmed or substantiated.
Velodrome: banked bicycle racing track.